The Wide Area Network (WAN) is a computer network that expands over a long distance. Its aim is majorly to join diverse Local Area Networks (LANs). Basically, WAN is a network that covers a public network. CPE belongs exclusively to the subscriber and lets out the CPE from the service provider. A vital component of the CPE is the copper or fiber cable because it joins the service provider's nearest exchange or central office.

This device takes care of routing messages between both networks. The router uses an IP address and operates layer 3. Another hardware component is the switch which chooses a direction for transmitting a unit of information to its intending location. Unlike the router, it operates at layer 2, and it also makes use of MAC addresses.


A routing protocol aims to point out how routers interface and exchange data in a specified network. Each router has a knowledge beforehand of its environs and has a sound knowledge of the dynamics of the network topology. The router is aware of this fact because the routing protocol distributes the data.


Routing Information Protocol known as RIP is a majorly used internally. Routers use RIP to mainly to ensure changes to the network connections as well as communicate information as to which networks routers can get to and how long they are to one another.

Distance Vector:

Also known the bellman-ford, the Distance vector ensures that each router informs its environment of its routing table.

Link State:

This kind of routing protocol ensures that each router remains at a limited map within the network.


Routing has to do with taking packets from one network to the other network.

IP Address:

All devices that has a connection to the internet has a designated IP address.

Integrated Services Digital Network:

Voice, data, video and images are carried over a phone network using Integrated Services Digital Network. Its acronym called ISDN.

Packet Switched Data Network:

It doesn’t have an edible communication signal as public phones does. They cover a specific range length and carry a root and location address.



Through the use of Digital Subscriber Line, also known as DSL, bandwidth connections with high voltage are made possible in houses and well as small scale businesses.  It makes use of a copper wire phone line. However, this won't be made possible if one doesn't stay in the area of the phone connection. Houses majorly use the Symmetric Digital Subscribers. It makes it possible to download at a high speed but uploading comes at a lower speed. High bit-rate Digital Subscriber Line, also known as HDSL was carved out from DSL. It helps to make wideband transfer of information possible between the telephone company and the subscriber.